Ground Improvement

Compaction Grouting
Compaction Grouting, also known as Low Mobility Grouting (LMG), uses volumetric displacement to improve in-situ soil conditions. A very low slump grout (usually 0” to 3” slump at the point of injection) is pumped in stages to displace the surrounding soil. Compaction grout is typically comprised of a blend of sand, cement, gravel and water. Ground improvement can be achieved by staging or sequencing the compaction grout locations. In some cases, primary, secondary, tertiary and even quaternary treatment locations may be considered to maximize the effectiveness of the compaction grouting program. Compaction grouting is also an excellent alternative for re-leveling structures, reinforcement of fine-grained soils and void filling. Compaction grout mix designs can be altered to provide a wide range of unconfined compressive strengths depending on the requirement of the project.

Chemical Grouting or Permeation Grouting
Chemical Grouting or Permeation Grouting refers to the use of certain chemicals such as polyurethanes, acrylates, acrylamides or sodium silicates for structural improvement or seepage control. The appropriate chemical grout can produce excellent results in a variety of applications. Careful consideration must be given to the selection of the grout and the contractor selected to perform the work to maximize the benefit of the chemical grouting operation. Chemical grouts have been successfully utilized to completely permeate clean sands to fill voids within the treated profile. Hydro-active grouts are commonly used to minimize or completely stop seepage in and around existing structures.

Jet Grouting or Jet Mixing
Jet Grouting or Jet Mixing is an erosion replacement technology that can be used very effectively to create various geometries of stabilized soil, in-situ, for a wide range of applications. By determining the proper rotation speed (rpm), lift rate (inch/sec), injection pressure (psi) combined with appropriately engineered slurries, jet grouting can be used to create panels, columns, or partial columns for use in water cut-off, underpinning, structural retention and a host of other applications. Jet grouting is quite possibly the most versatile grouting technology currently available to the geotechnical construction industry. Jet grouting can be used to surgically place elements or to create stabilized zones such as walls and a bottom seal for excavation support or columns to underpin an existing structure. Material strength and permeability of the stabilized soil can be determined by geotechnical sampling combined with lab testing prior to mobilization. Geometries and other grouting parameters such as rotation speed and lift rate can be verified in the field prior to production thru a carefully planned and executed test program. Any deviations in the jet grouting plan required to meet the intent of the design can then be adjusted prior to performing the production work.

Aggregate Piers
Aggregate Piers are columns of compacted stone placed in situ which can be designed to reduce settlement, improve bearing capacity, mitigate liquefaction potential and increase shear resistance. Aggregate piers can be installed by predrilling and placing the stone from the surface or by insertion of the tool and delivering the stone thru an annulus to the tip of the tool without the need for predrilling. These installation techniques are commonly referred to as top feed or bottom feed respectively. In either case, the tool is raised and lowered as the stone is placed. This action, combined with vibration created by the tool, compacts the stone creating a densified column of rock. Aggregate piers can be used to improve the ground by virtue of volumetric displacement in granular soils or as reinforcement in cohesive soils.

Vibratory Compaction
Vibratory Compaction can be used to increase bearing capacity, reduce settlement, mitigate liquefaction potential, and improve clean granular fill material. Vibratory compaction uses tooling and equipment similar to aggregate pier installation but does not rely an an aggregate to improve the ground. Vibratory Compaction is limited in application to relatively clean (minimal fines), non cohesive material such as sand.


Slurry Grouting or Cement Grouting
Slurry Grouting or Cement Grouting is the general terminology applied to placement of a cementitious binder such as cement, fly ash or slag in a slurry form (typically binder and water only). Slurry grout can be placed under pressure (Pressure Grouting), gravity filling, or tremie placement depending on the application and requirements of the project. Slurry grouting is most commonly used in the industry to fill cracks and voids in rock formations to create a water cut-off or to increase capacity. Slurry grouting is also commonly used for placement of grout in soil nail, micropile and anchor applications. Slurry grouts are also used to fill voids directly beneath existing foundations to reestablish intimate contact with the subgrade (Contact Grouting). As with most grouting technologies, the type of binder and water to cement (w:c) ratio will determine the strength of the material after fully curing. Additives can be used to engineer the appropriate slurry for the application


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Phone: (205) 923-4434
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